Othmer Library of Chemical History
Science History Institute
315 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106
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Pigments differ from dyes in that they are substances that sit on top of the materials they color as opposed to becoming fixed to the materials' internal structure. This subject guide will not generally discuss pigments.
The Othmer Library has an extensive collection of materials on dyes, dyeing and dyers. Use this subject guide to find materials across collections.
Classification of Dyestuffs:
Color or Hue: named to indicate the color imparted on the dyed material.
Origin: natural or synthetic.
Utilization: based on the materials to which the dyes are applied. Cloth of natural fibers, Cloth of synthetic fibers, Paper, Leather, Wood, Pigments, Food, Oils, Plastics and rubbers, Biological samples, Photography, and more such as soap and metal.
Methods of Application: Acid dyes, Basic dyes, Mordant dyes, Direct dyes, Ingrain dyes, Disperse dyes, Vat dyes, Sulfur dyes, and Solvent dyes.
Dye: A color substance that is able to be fixed to the internal structure of fibers therefore imparting the color to the material.
Coal Tar Dyes: Dyes made from organic chemicals from coal tar. Synthetic dyes.
Dye-bath: A general term for the liquors in which the material is dyed.
Inorganic: Mineral substance which does not contain carbon.
Intermediates: The chemical compounds from which dyes are manufactured.
Fast Color: A dye color that is fairly resistant to fading by washing or light.
Fugitive Dye: A dye color that is easily removed or fades quickly.
Mordant: A substance that works to bind a dye to a material, a fixing agent.
Organic: Derived from a carbon compound.
Vat Dye: A water insoluble dye.
Playing card advertising Fairy Dyes Ltd., a dyestuffs company based in Glasgow, Scotland.
CHF Collections, object ID 2012.007.
American Cyanamid Co. founded 1907
Badische Anilin & Soda Fabrik A.G. founded 1865
Clayton Aniline Co. Ltd
Cassella Farbwerke Mainkur A.G.
CIBA Ltd, formerly Society of Chemical Industry, Basle
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Inc.
Farbenfabriken Bayer A.G.
Farbwerke Hoechst A.G.
J.R. Geigy S.A.
Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd
I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G.
L.B. Holliday & Co. Ltd
National Aniline Division, Allied Chemical Corporation
Yorkshire Dyeware & Chemical Co. Ltd
Calco Chemical Co.